Details

Mobile Robots


Mobile Robots

Navigation, Control and Sensing, Surface Robots and AUVs
2. Aufl.

von: Gerald Cook, Feitian Zhang

100,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 03.01.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119534822
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 352

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Beschreibungen

Presents the normal kinematic and dynamic equations for robots, including mobile robots, with coordinate transformations and various control strategies This fully updated edition examines the use of mobile robots for sensing objects of interest, and focus primarily on control, navigation, and remote sensing. It also includes an entirely new section on modeling and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which exhibits unique complex three-dimensional dynamics. Mobile Robots: Navigation, Control and Sensing, Surface Robots and AUVs, Second Edition starts with a chapter on kinematic models for mobile robots. It then offers a detailed chapter on robot control, examining several different configurations of mobile robots. Following sections look at robot attitude and navigation. The application of Kalman Filtering is covered. Readers are also provided with a section on remote sensing and sensors. Other chapters discuss: target tracking, including multiple targets with multiple sensors; obstacle mapping and its application to robot navigation; operating a robotic manipulator; and remote sensing via UAVs. The last two sections deal with the dynamics modeling of AUVs and control of AUVs. In addition, this text: Includes two new chapters dealing with control of underwater vehicles Covers control schemes including linearization and use of linear control design methods, Lyapunov stability theory, and more Addresses the problem of ground registration of detected objects of interest given their pixel coordinates in the sensor frame Analyzes geo-registration errors as a function of sensor precision and sensor pointing uncertainty Mobile Robots: Navigation, Control and Sensing, Surface Robots and AUVs is intended for use as a textbook for a graduate course of the same title and can also serve as a reference book for practicing engineers working in related areas.
Preface xi About the Authors xiii Introduction 1 1 Kinematic Models for Mobile Robots 5 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Vehicles with Front-Wheel Steering 5 1.3 Vehicles with Differential-Drive Steering 8 Exercises 11 References 12 2 Mobile Robot Control 13 2.1 Introduction 13 2.2 Front-Wheel Steered Vehicle, Heading Control 13 2.3 Front-Wheel Steered Vehicle, Speed Control 22 2.4 Heading and Speed Control for the Differential-Drive Robot 23 2.5 Reference Trajectory and Incremental Control, Front-Wheel Steered Robot 26 2.6 Heading Control of Front-Wheel Steered Robot Using the Nonlinear Model 31 2.7 Computed Control for Heading and Velocity, Front-Wheel Steered Robot 34 2.8 Heading Control of Differential-Drive Robot Using the Nonlinear Model 36 2.9 Computed Control for Heading and Velocity, Differential-Drive Robot 37 2.10 Steering Control Along a Path Using a Local Coordinate Frame 38 2.11 Optimal Steering of Front-Wheel Steered Vehicle 49 2.12 Optimal Steering of Front-Wheel Steered Vehicle, Free Final Heading Angle 67 Exercises 68 References 69 3 Robot Attitude 71 3.1 Introduction 71 3.2 Definition of Yaw, Pitch, and Roll 71 3.3 Rotation Matrix for Yaw 72 3.4 Rotation Matrix for Pitch 74 3.5 Rotation Matrix for Roll 75 3.6 General Rotation Matrix 77 3.7 Homogeneous Transformation 78 3.8 Rotating a Vector 82 Exercises 83 References 84 4 Robot Navigation 85 4.1 Introduction 85 4.2 Coordinate Systems 85 4.3 Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed Coordinate System 85 4.4 Associated Coordinate Systems 88 4.5 Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System 91 4.6 Global Positioning System 93 4.7 Computing Receiver Location Using GPS, Numerical Methods 97 4.7.1 Computing Receiver Location Using GPS via Newton’s Method 97 4.7.2 Computing Receiver Location Using GPS via Minimization of a Performance Index 105 4.8 Array of GPS Antennas 111 4.9 Gimbaled Inertial Navigation Systems 114 4.10 Strap-Down Inertial Navigation Systems 118 4.11 Dead Reckoning or Deduced Reckoning 123 4.12 Inclinometer/Compass 125 Exercises 127 References 131 5 Application of Kalman Filtering 133 5.1 Introduction 133 5.2 Estimating a Fixed Quantity Using Batch Processing 133 5.3 Estimating a Fixed Quantity Using Recursive Processing 134 5.4 Estimating the State of a Dynamic System Recursively 139 5.5 Estimating the State of a Nonlinear System via the Extended Kalman Filter 150 Exercises 165 References 169 6 Remote Sensing 171 6.1 Introduction 171 6.2 Camera-Type Sensors 171 6.3 Stereo Vision 181 6.4 Radar Sensing: Synthetic Aperture Radar 185 6.5 Pointing of Range Sensor at Detected Object 190 6.6 Detection Sensor in Scanning Mode 195 Exercises 199 References 200 7 Target Tracking Including Multiple Targets with Multiple Sensors 203 7.1 Introduction 203 7.2 Regions of Confidence for Sensors 203 7.3 Model of Target Location 211 7.4 Inventory of Detected Targets 215 Exercises 220 References 221 8 Obstacle Mapping and Its Application to Robot Navigation 223 8.1 Introduction 223 8.2 Sensors for Obstacle Detection and Geo-Registration 223 8.3 Dead Reckoning Navigation 225 8.4 Use of Previously Detected Obstacles for Navigation 229 8.5 Simultaneous Corrections of Coordinates of Detected Obstacles and of the Robot 233 Exercises 236 References 237 9 Operating a Robotic Manipulator 239 9.1 Introduction 239 9.2 Forward Kinematic Equations 239 9.3 Path Specification in Joint Space 242 9.4 Inverse Kinematic Equations 242 9.5 Path Specification in Cartesian Space 248 9.6 Velocity Relationships 249 9.7 Forces and Torques 255 Exercises 261 References 262 10 Remote Sensing via UAVs 263 10.1 Introduction 263 10.2 Mounting of Sensors 263 10.3 Resolution of Sensors 264 10.4 Precision of Vehicle Instrumentation 264 10.5 Overall Geo-Registration Precision 265 Exercise 267 References 267 11 Dynamics Modeling of AUVs 269 11.1 Introduction 269 11.2 Motivation 269 11.3 Full Dynamic Model 270 11.4 Hydrodynamic Model 273 11.5 Reduced-Order Longitudinal Dynamics 274 11.6 Computation of Steady Gliding Path in the Longitudinal Plane 276 11.7 Scaling Analysis 279 11.8 Spiraling Dynamics 281 11.9 Computation of Spiral Path 286 Exercises 288 References 289 12 Control of AUVs 291 12.1 Introduction 291 12.2 Longitudinal Gliding Stabilization 291 12.2.1 Longitudinal Dynamic Model Reduction 292 12.2.2 Passivity-Based Controller Design 295 12.2.3 Simulation Results 297 12.3 Yaw Angle Regulation 298 12.3.1 Problem Statement 298 12.3.2 Sliding Mode Controller Design 300 12.3.3 Simulation Results 303 12.4 Spiral Path Tracking 307 12.4.1 Steady Spiral and Its Differential Geometric Parameters 307 12.4.2 Two Degree-of-Freedom Control Design 310 12.4.3 Simulation Results 314 Exercises 321 References 322 Appendix A Demonstrations of Undergraduate Student Robotic Projects 323 Index 327
GERALD COOK, ScD, is the Earle C. Williams Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering and past chairman of Electrical and Computer Engineering at George Mason University. He was previously Chairman of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt University and before that, Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Virginia. He is a Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a former president of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society and a former Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. FEITIAN ZHANG, PHD, is an Assistant Professor in the Electrical & Computer Engineering Department at George Mason University. He was awarded the GMU Multidisciplinary Research Awards in 2017 and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Summer Faculty Fellowship in 2019. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Presents the normal kinematic and dynamic equations for robots, including mobile robots, with coordinate transformations and various control strategies This fully updated edition examines the use of mobile robots for sensing objects of interest, and focus primarily on control, navigation, and remote sensing. It also includes an entirely new section on modeling and control of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), which exhibits unique complex three-dimensional dynamics. Mobile Robots: Navigation, Control and Sensing, Surface Robots and AUVs, Second Edition starts with a chapter on kinematic models for mobile robots. It then offers a detailed chapter on robot control, examining several different configurations of mobile robots. Following sections look at robot attitude and navigation. The application of Kalman Filtering is covered. Readers are also provided with a section on remote sensing and sensors. Other chapters discuss: target tracking, including multiple targets with multiple sensors; obstacle mapping and its application to robot navigation; operating a robotic manipulator; and remote sensing via UAVs. The last two sections deal with the dynamics modeling of AUVs and control of AUVs. In summary, this text: Includes two new chapters dealing with control of underwater vehicles Covers control schemes including linearization and use of linear control design methods, Lyapunov stability theory, and more Addresses the problem of ground registration of detected objects of interest given their pixel coordinates in the sensor frame Analyzes geo-registration errors as a function of sensor precision and sensor pointing uncertainty Mobile Robots: Navigation, Control and Sensing, Surface Robots and AUVs, Second Edition is intended for use as a textbook for a graduate course of the same title and can also serve as a reference book for practicing engineers working in related areas.

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