Details

Optical Engineering Science


Optical Engineering Science


1. Aufl.

von: Stephen Rolt

96,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 07.01.2020
ISBN/EAN: 9781119302797
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 664

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Beschreibungen

A practical guide for engineers and students that covers a wide range of optical design and optical metrology topics Optical Engineering Science offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of the science of optical engineering. The book bridges the gap between the basic theoretical principles of classical optics and the practical application of optics in the commercial world. Written by a noted expert in the field, the book examines a range of practical topics that are related to optical design, optical metrology and manufacturing. The book fills a void in the literature by coving all three topics in a single volume. Optical engineering science is at the foundation of the design of commercial optical systems, such as mobile phone cameras and digital cameras as well as highly sophisticated instruments for commercial and research applications. It spans the design, manufacture and testing of space or aerospace instrumentation to the optical sensor technology for environmental monitoring. Optics engineering science has a wide variety of applications, both commercial and research. This important book: Offers a comprehensive review of the topic of optical engineering Covers topics such as optical fibers, waveguides, aspheric surfaces, Zernike polynomials, polarisation, birefringence and more Targets engineering professionals and students Filled with illustrative examples and mathematical equations Written for professional practitioners, optical engineers, optical designers, optical systems engineers and students, Optical Engineering Science offers an authoritative guide that covers the broad range of optical design and optical metrology topics and their applications.
Preface xxi Glossary xxv About the Companion Website xxix 1 Geometrical Optics 1 1.1 Geometrical Optics – Ray and Wave Optics 1 1.2 Fermat’s Principle and the Eikonal Equation 2 1.3 Sequential Geometrical Optics – A Generalised Description 3 1.4 Behaviour of Simple Optical Components and Surfaces 10 1.5 Paraxial Approximation and Gaussian Optics 15 1.6 Matrix Ray Tracing 16 Further Reading 21 2 Apertures Stops and Simple Instruments 23 2.1 Function of Apertures and Stops 23 2.2 Aperture Stops, Chief, and Marginal Rays 23 2.3 Entrance Pupil and Exit Pupil 25 2.4 Telecentricity 27 2.5 Vignetting 27 2.6 Field Stops and Other Stops 28 2.7 Tangential and Sagittal Ray Fans 28 2.8 Two Dimensional Ray Fans and Anamorphic Optics 28 2.9 Optical Invariant and Lagrange Invariant 30 2.10 Eccentricity Variable 31 2.11 Image Formation in Simple Optical Systems 31 Further Reading 36 3 Monochromatic Aberrations 37 3.1 Introduction 37 3.2 Breakdown of the Paraxial Approximation and Third Order Aberrations 37 3.3 Aberration and Optical Path Difference 41 3.4 General Third Order Aberration Theory 46 3.5 Gauss-Seidel Aberrations 47 3.6 Summary of Third Order Aberrations 55 Further Reading 58 4 Aberration Theory and Chromatic Aberration 59 4.1 General Points 59 4.2 Aberration Due to a Single Refractive Surface 60 4.3 Reflection from a Spherical Mirror 64 4.4 Refraction Due to Optical Components 67 4.5 The Effect of Pupil Position on Element Aberration 78 4.6 Abbe Sine Condition 81 4.7 Chromatic Aberration 83 4.8 Hierarchy of Aberrations 92 Further Reading 94 5 Aspheric Surfaces and Zernike Polynomials 95 5.1 Introduction 95 5.2 Aspheric Surfaces 95 5.3 Zernike Polynomials 100 Further Reading 109 6 Diffraction, Physical Optics, and Image Quality 111 6.1 Introduction 111 6.2 The Eikonal Equation 112 6.3 Huygens Wavelets and the Diffraction Formulae 112 6.4 Diffraction in the Fraunhofer Approximation 115 6.5 Diffraction in an Optical System – the Airy Disc 116 6.6 The Impact of Aberration on System Resolution 120 6.7 Laser Beam Propagation 123 6.8 Fresnel Diffraction 130 6.9 Diffraction and Image Quality 132 Further Reading 138 7 Radiometry and Photometry 139 7.1 Introduction 139 7.2 Radiometry 139 7.3 Scattering of Light from Rough Surfaces 146 7.4 Scattering of Light from Smooth Surfaces 147 7.5 Radiometry and Object Field Illumination 151 7.6 Radiometric Measurements 155 7.7 Photometry 158 Further Reading 166 8 Polarisation and Birefringence 169 8.1 Introduction 169 8.2 Polarisation 170 8.3 Birefringence 178 8.4 Polarisation Devices 187 8.5 Analysis of Polarisation Components 191 8.6 Stress-induced Birefringence 196 Further Reading 197 9 Optical Materials 199 9.1 Introduction 199 9.2 Refractive Properties of Optical Materials 200 9.3 Transmission Characteristics of Materials 212 9.4 Thermomechanical Properties 215 9.5 Material Quality 219 9.6 Exposure to Environmental Attack 221 9.7 Material Processing 221 Further Reading 222 10 Coatings and Filters 223 10.1 Introduction 223 10.2 Properties of Thin Films 223 10.3 Filters 232 10.4 Design of Thin Film Filters 244 10.5 Thin Film Materials 246 10.6 Thin Film Deposition Processes 247 Further Reading 250 11 Prisms and Dispersion Devices 251 11.1 Introduction 251 11.2 Prisms 251 11.3 Analysis of Diffraction Gratings 257 11.4 Diffractive Optics 273 11.5 Grating Fabrication 274 Further Reading 276 12 Lasers and Laser Applications 277 12.1 Introduction 277 12.2 Stimulated Emission Schemes 279 12.3 Laser Cavities 284 12.4 Taxonomy of Lasers 293 12.5 List of Laser Types 298 12.6 Laser Applications 301 Further Reading 308 13 Optical Fibres and Waveguides 309 13.1 Introduction 309 13.2 Geometrical Description of Fibre Propagation 310 13.3 Waveguides and Modes 317 13.4 Single Mode Optical Fibres 324 13.5 Optical Fibre Materials 329 13.6 Coupling of Light into Fibres 330 13.7 Fibre Splicing and Connection 334 13.8 Fibre Splitters, Combiners, and Couplers 335 13.9 Polarisation and Polarisation Maintaining Fibres 335 13.10 Focal Ratio Degradation 336 13.11 Periodic Structures in Fibres 336 13.12 Fibre Manufacture 338 13.13 Fibre Applications 339 Further Reading 339 14 Detectors 341 14.1 Introduction 341 14.2 Detector Types 341 14.3 Noise in Detectors 354 14.4 Radiometry and Detectors 364 14.5 Array Detectors in Instrumentation 365 Further Reading 368 15 Optical Instrumentation – Imaging Devices 369 15.1 Introduction 369 15.2 The Design of Eyepieces 370 15.3 Microscope Objectives 378 15.4 Telescopes 381 15.5 Camera Systems 392 Further Reading 405 16 Interferometers and Related Instruments 407 16.1 Introduction 407 16.2 Background 407 16.3 Classical Interferometers 409 16.4 Calibration 418 16.5 Interferometry and Null Tests 420 16.6 Interferometry and Phase Shifting 425 16.7 Miscellaneous Characterisation Techniques 426 Further Reading 433 17 Spectrometers and Related Instruments 435 17.1 Introduction 435 17.2 Basic Spectrometer Designs 436 17.3 Time Domain Spectrometry 454 Further Reading 457 18 Optical Design 459 18.1 Introduction 459 18.2 Design Philosophy 461 18.3 Optical Design Tools 467 18.4 Non-Sequential Modelling 487 18.5 Afterword 495 Further Reading 495 19 Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Modelling 497 19.1 Introduction 497 19.2 Basic Elastic Theory 498 19.3 Basic Analysis of Mechanical Distortion 501 19.4 Basic Analysis of Thermo-Mechanical Distortion 517 19.5 Finite Element Analysis 525 Further Reading 529 20 Optical Component Manufacture 531 20.1 Introduction 531 20.2 Conventional Figuring of Optical Surfaces 532 20.3 Specialist Shaping and Polishing Techniques 539 20.4 Diamond Machining 541 20.5 Edging and Bonding 547 20.6 Form Error and Surface Roughness 550 20.7 Standards and Drawings 551 Further Reading 557 21 System Integration and Alignment 559 21.1 Introduction 559 21.2 Component Mounting 561 21.3 Optical Bonding 573 21.4 Alignment 577 21.5 Cleanroom Assembly 583 Further Reading 586 22 Optical Test and Verification 587 22.1 Introduction 587 22.2 Facilities 589 22.3 Environmental Testing 591 22.4 Geometrical Testing 595 22.5 Image Quality Testing 603 22.6 Radiometric Tests 604 22.7 Material and Component Testing 609 Further Reading 612 Index 613 
STEPHEN ROLT, D.Phil, formerly Senior Optical Engineer at Durham University, United Kingdom. He has had a thirty-year career in optics that has embraced both industry and academia. Dr. Rolt spent 20 years in applied research at the Standard Communication Laboratories and has filed over 25 patents in the optical technology field.
A practical guide for engineers and students covering a wide range of optical design and optical metrology topics Optical Engineering Science offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of the science of optical engineering. The book bridges the gap between the basic theoretical principles of classical optics and the practical application of optics in the commercial world. Written by a noted expert in the field, the book examines a range of practical topics that are related to optical design, optical metrology and manufacturing. The book fills a void in the literature by covering all three topics in a single volume. Optical Engineering Science is at the foundation of the design of commercial optical systems, such as mobile phone cameras and digital cameras, as well as highly sophisticated instruments for commercial and research applications. It spans the design, manufacture and testing of space or aerospace instrumentation to the optical sensor technology for environmental monitoring. Optics engineering science has a wide variety of applications, both commercial and research. This important book: Offers a comprehensive review of the topic of optical engineering Covers topics such as optical fibers, waveguides, aspheric surfaces, Zernike polynomials, polarisation, birefringence and more Targets engineering professionals and students Is filled with illustrative examples and mathematical equations Written for professional practitioners, optical engineers, optical designers, optical systems engineers and students, Optical Engineering Science offers an authoritative guide that covers the broad range of optical design and optical metrology topics and their applications.

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