This textbook provides an overview of the origin and preservation of carbonate sedimentary rocks. The focus is on limestones and dolostones and the sediments from which they are derived. The approach is general and universal and draws heavily on fundamental discoveries, arresting interpretations, and keystone syntheses that have been developed over the last five decades. The book is designed as a teaching tool for upper level undergraduate classes, a fundamental reference for graduate and research students, and a scholarly source of information for practicing professionals whose expertise lies outside this specialty. The approach is rigorous, with every chapter being designed as a separate lecture on a specific topic that is encased within a larger scheme. The text is profusely illustrated with all colour diagrams and images of rocks, subsurface cores, thin sections, modern sediments, and underwater seascapes.Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/james/carbonaterocks
Preface xiii Acknowledgements xv PART I: CARBONATE SEDIMENTOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW 1 1 CARBONATE ROCKS AND PLATFORMS 5 What are carbonate sedimentary rocks? 6 Why should we care about studying these rocks? 6 What is the scientific approach? 6 The carbonate continuum 7 How do carbonate sediments form? 9 Where are carbonates produced and where do they accumulate? 10 Tectonic settings and the nature of carbonate platforms 11 How do we study carbonate sediments and rocks? 14 Further reading 14 2 CARBONATE CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY 15 Introduction 16 Chemistry 16 Carbonate precipitation and dissolution in the ocean 19 Further reading 21 3 THE CARBONATE FACTORY 22 Introduction 23 Sediment production 23 Component modification 28 Karst and carbonate spring precipitates 36 Further reading 37 4 MARINE CARBONATE FACTORIES AND ROCK CLASSIFICATIONS 38 Introduction 39 Environmental controls 39 Benthic marine factories 46 Pelagic marine factories 47 Limestone classification schemes 47 Further reading 50 5 THE CARBONATE FACTORY: MICROBES AND ALGAE 51 Introduction 52 Microbes and carbonates 52 Microbialites 52 Modern stromatolites 54 Calcimicrobes 60 Calcareous algae 60 Further reading 66 6 THE CARBONATE FACTORY: SINGLE CELLS AND SHELLS 67 Introduction 68 Single?]cell microfossils 68 Macrofossils 71 Further reading 78 7 THE CARBONATE FACTORY: ECHINODERMS AND COLONIAL INVERTEBRATES 79 Introduction 80 Echinoderms 80 Sponges 82 Bryozoans 85 Corals 89 Further reading 93 Part II: CARBONATE DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW 95 8 LACUSTRINE CARBONATES 99 Introduction 100 Modern lakes: Zonation and classification 100 Controls on lake sedimentation 101 Lake sedimentation 103 Lacustrine microbialites 107 Classification of ancient lake deposits 108 Further reading 108 9 CARBONATE SPRINGS 110 Introduction 111 Spring systems 111 Classification of springs 112 Tufa, travertine, or sinter? 113 Biota of spring systems 114 Carbonate precipitation in spring systems 114 Spring architecture 115 Calcareous spring carbonate facies 117 Further reading 122 10 WARM?]WATER NERITIC CARBONATE DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEMS 123 Introduction 124 The carbonate factory 124 Depositional systems 125 Further reading 134 11 THE COOL?]WATER NERITIC REALM 135 Introduction 136 The Carbonate Factory 136 Depositional settings 139 Warm?]temperate carbonates 141 Cool?]temperate carbonates 144 Cold?]water, polar carbonate systems 144 The rock record 145 Further reading 148 12 MUDDY PERITIDAL CARBONATES 150 Introduction 151 Andros Island: The Bahamas 152 Shark Bay: Western Australia 154 The United Arab Emirates: Persian Gulf 155 Stratigraphy 158 The shallowing?]upward peritidal cycle 158 How do numerous peritidal cycles form? 158 Temporal variations on the peritidal cycle theme 162 Further reading 163 13 NERITIC CARBONATE TIDAL SAND BODIES 165 Introduction 166 Tides and tidal currents 166 Tidal sand bodies 167 Bahamian platform ooid sand bodies 169 Types of Bahamian platform sand bodies 170 Some examples of Bahamian sand bodies 171 Inter?]island tidal ooid sand bodies (tidal deltas) 173 Platform interior Bahamian ooid sand bodies 174 Carbonate ramp tidal ooid sand bodies 175 Carbonate sand bodies in straits and seaways 175 Carbonate sands in flooded incised valleys 176 Carbonate sands in hypersaline basins 177 The rock record of tidal ooid sands 177 Ancient sand body geometries 178 Further reading 178 14 MODERN REEFS 179 Introduction 180 The reef mosaic 180 The coral reef growth window 182 Shallow?]water reefs 184 Deep?]water reefs 189 Further reading 191 15 ANCIENT REEFS 192 Introduction 193 The ancient reef factory 193 Microbes, calcimicrobes, and calcareous algae 194 Internal cavities 195 Lithification 195 Boring and bioerosion 196 Reef stratigraphic nomenclature 196 The spectrum of ancient reefs 198 Reefs 198 Reef mounds 199 Reef geohistory 202 Reef rock classification 206 Further reading 217 16 CARBONATE SLOPES 212 Introduction 213 Depositional bathymetry 213 The deposits 213 Contourites 217 Slope types 218 Temporal and spatial variability 220 Further reading 222 17 DEEP?]WATER PELAGIC CARBONATES 223 Introduction 224 Universal controls 224 Depositional controls 225 Universal attributes 226 Old pelagic sediments 226 Young pelagic sediments 228 The pelagic factory 228 Chalk 229 Associated sediments 233 Ocean anoxia 233 Further reading 233 18 PRECAMBRIAN CARBONATES 234 Introduction 235 Precambrian carbonate systems 235 The carbonate factory 235 Reefs 242 Further reading 246 19 CARBONATE SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY 247 Introduction 248 Carbonate sequence stratigraphy 249 Shallow?]water reef sequence stratigraphy 250 Photozoan rimmed platforms 252 Evaporites and siliciclastics 255 Heterozoan unrimmed carbonate platforms 255 Ramps 257 Higher?]order cycles (parasequences) 259 Depositional cycles 259 Further reading 259 20 THE TIME MACHINE 261 Introduction 262 Carbonates and plate tectonics 262 Paleoclimate and paleoceanography 265 Carbonates and the evolving biosphere 268 Ocean acidification 271 Further reading 271 Part III: CARBONATE DIAGENESIS: AN OVERVIEW 273 21 THE PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTS OF DIAGENESIS 277 Introduction to the processes 278 Carbonate dissolution 278 Carbonate precipitation 278 The environments 281 Synsedimentary marine diagenetic environment 282 Meteoric diagenetic environment 282 Burial diagenetic environment 284 Dolomite and dolostone 285 Further reading 285 22 ANALYTICAL METHODS 286 Introduction 287 Petrography 288 X?]ray diffraction analysis 291 Scanning electron microscopy 292 Electron microprobe analysis 294 Chemical analyses 294 Further reading 296 23 THE CHEMISTRY OF CARBONATE DIAGENESIS 297 Introduction 298 Trace elements and element ratios 298 Stable isotopes 301 Oxygen isotopes 301 Carbon isotopes 303 Stable isotope values for modern biogenic carbonates 304 Carbonate stable isotope values through geologic time 305 Strontium isotopes 307 Further reading 309 24 LIMESTONE: THE SYNSEDIMENTARY MARINE DIAGENETIC ENVIRONMENT 311 Introduction 312 The setting 312 Dissolution 312 Precipitation 313 Alteration 315 Synsedimentary limestone 316 Spatial distribution of early lithification 318 Strandline diagenesis 319 The rock record 323 Isotopic composition of ancient marine cements 324 Further reading 325 25 METEORIC DIAGENESIS OF YOUNG LIMESTONES 326 Introduction 327 Processes 327 Cements and cementation 330 Diagenesis of calcite sediments 333 Importance of grain size 333 Diagenesis in different meteoric settings 334 Importance of climate 335 How long does it take? 335 The ultimate product 336 Geochemistry 337 Further reading 339 26 KARST AND WATER?]CONTROLLED DIAGENESIS 341 Introduction 342 Surficial processes and products 342 Surface karst facies 342 Calcrete facies 346 Subsurface karst facies 348 Surface and subsurface carbonate geochemistry 355 Further reading 356 27 BURIAL DIAGENESIS OF LIMESTONE 357 Introduction 358 The setting 358 Controlling factors 358 Processes and products 359 Burial cementation 362 Burial diagenetic models 365 Paragenesis via cement stratigraphy 368 Further reading 369 28 DOLOMITE AND DOLOMITIZATION 370 Introduction 371 Scientific approach 371 Dolomite: the mineral 371 Dolostone: the rock 373 The limestone to dolostone transition 376 Early diagenetic alteration of dolomite 376 Dolomite geochemistry 380 Further reading 382 29 DOLOMITIZATION PROCESSES AND SYNSEDIMENTARY DOLOMITE 383 Introduction 384 What limits dolomite formation? 384 How to form extensive dolomite 385 The different types of dolomite and dolostone 386 Synsedimentary (authigenic) dolomite 386 Further reading 390 30 SUBSURFACE DOLOMITIZATION AND DOLOSTONE PARAGENESIS 392 Introduction 393 Shallow?]burial early?]diagenetic dolomites 393 Deep?]burial late?]diagenetic dolomites 396 Synthesis 399 Dolomite paragenesis 399 Further reading 402 31 DIAGENESIS AND GEOHISTORY 403 Introduction 404 Eogenetic diagenesis 404 Approach 406 Lowstand systems tract 406 Transgressive systems tract 408 Highstand systems tract 410 Post?]eogenetic diagenesis 411 Further reading 413 32 CARBONATE POROSITY 414 Introduction 415 Porosity 415 Porosity measurement 415 Permeability 416 Types of porosity 416 Porosity classification 421 Porosity evolution through time 422 Porosity and dolomitization 423 The evolution of porosity 423 Integration 425 Further reading 426 GLOSSARY 427 INDEX 000
Noel James, Professor of Geology at Queen’s University, Canada, has, for over 40 years focused his research on carbonate sediments and rocks that range from the modern seafloor to the Archean, studying their origin via extensive marine and terrestrial fieldwork, petrography, and geochemistry. He has taught numerous courses on oceanography, carbonate sedimentology, petroleum geology and the evolution of North America to undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals as well as editing or authoring nine scientific books. He has been honoured many times by learned societies, is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and a Member of the Order of Canada. Brian Jones, Distinguished University Professor (Geology) at the University of Alberta, Canada, has, for over 40 years taught numerous courses at the introductory and advanced level on carbonate sedimentology and diagenesis. His research on carbonates has concentrated on the deposition and diagenesis of modern and Cenozoic deposits in the Caribbean, surface and subsurface Paleozoic rocks in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, many of which are prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs, and spring deposits worldwide. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and the first Middleton Medalist of the Geological Association of Canada.
This textbook provides an overview of the origin and preservation of carbonate sedimentary rocks. The focus is on limestones and dolostones and the sediments from which they are derived. The approach is general and universal and draws heavily on fundamental discoveries, arresting interpretations, and keystone syntheses that have been developed over the last five decades. The book is designed as a teaching tool for upper level undergraduate classes, a fundamental reference for graduate and research students, and a scholarly source of information for practicing professionals whose expertise lies outside this specialty. The approach is rigorous, with every chapter being designed as a separate lecture on a specific topic that is encased within a larger scheme. The text is profusely illustrated with all colour diagrams and images of rocks, subsurface cores, thin sections, modern sediments, and underwater seascapes.
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